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Compromis écophysiologiques et contraintes biophysiques chez les céréales : impacts de la sélection agronomique et des conditions environnementales

Abstract : In the face of challenges for agriculture, plant breeding improvement must be based on new strategies to maintain production while limiting use of inputs. Selection for specific yield-related agronomic characteristics is made difficult by possible covariations with undesired traits. Across wild species, a comparative functional trait-based approach, related to biological functions and plant performance as growth, survival and reproduction, highlighted ecophysiological tradeoffs and biophysical constraints related to resources use. Within crops, better knowledge about those limits and their variability in response to environmental conditions would help to adapt the targeted selection. This thesis focuses on the genetic diversity of two well-known phenotypic combinations; the leaf economics spectrum and allometric relationships. Genotypes from four cereal crops, more or less domesticated and selected, were analyzed to compare intraspecific and interspecific variabilities. Original data were obtained through phenotyping, conducted into high-throughput platforms and open field experimentation. This work enabled i) the selection of a strategy for acquiring resources during wheat domestication, ii) the quantification of light availability impacts on allometric response of 337 maize hybrids to soil moisture deficit and iii) illustration of the existence and genetic diversity of the leaf economic spectrum within 30, 23, 19 and 25 inbred lines of maize, pearl millet, sorghum and wheat, respectively. Through multi-species and multi-genotypes analyses, our comparative approach enabled us to evaluate and discriminate the possible phenotypic variability of cereal crops in response to domestication or environmental stress. Study of both tradeoffs and constraints highlighted inexistence of phenotypic combinations. Take into account this result would help both plant breeding and cultural practices such as crop mixtures.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, October 13, 2021 - 1:37:51 PM
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Agathe Roucou. Compromis écophysiologiques et contraintes biophysiques chez les céréales : impacts de la sélection agronomique et des conditions environnementales. Sciences du Vivant [q-bio]. Montpellier SupAgro, 2018. Français. ⟨tel-03376254⟩

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