Use of ecotoxicity test and ecoscores to improve the management of polluted soils: case of a secondary lead smelter plant

Abstract : With the rise of sustainable development, rehabilitation of brownfield sites located in urban areas has become a major concern. Management of contaminated soils in relation with environmental and sanitary risk concerns is therefore a strong aim needing the development of both useful tools for risk assessment and sustainable remediation techniques. For soils polluted by metals and metalloids (MTE), the criteria for landfilling are currently not based on ecotoxicological tests but on total MTE concentrations and leaching tests. In this study, the ecotoxicity of leachates from MTE polluted soils sampled from an industrial site recycling lead-acid batteries were evaluated by using both modified Escherichia coli strains with luminescence modulated by metals and normalized Daphnia magna and Alivibrio fischeri bioassays. The results were clearly related to the type of microorganisms (crustacean, different strains of bacteria) whose sensitivity varied. Ecotoxicity was also different according to sample location on the site, total concentrations and physico-chemical properties of each soil. For comparison, standard leaching tests were also performed. Potentially phytoavailable fraction of MTE in soils and physico-chemical measures were finally performed in order to highlight the mechanisms. The results demonstrated that the use of a panel of microorganisms is suitable for hazard classification of polluted soils. In addition, calculated eco-scores permit to rank the polluted soils according to their potentially of dangerousness. Influence of soil and MTE characteristics on MTE mobility and ecotoxicity was also highlighted.
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Journal of Hazardous Materials, Elsevier, 2013, Vol. 246-247, pp. 291-299. 〈10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.12.042〉
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Yann Foucault, Marie-José Durand, Karine Tack, Eva Schreck, Florence Geret, et al.. Use of ecotoxicity test and ecoscores to improve the management of polluted soils: case of a secondary lead smelter plant. Journal of Hazardous Materials, Elsevier, 2013, Vol. 246-247, pp. 291-299. 〈10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.12.042〉. 〈hal-00815325〉

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