Decrease in ovalbumin-induced pulmonary allergic response by benzaldehyde but not acetaldehyde exposure in a guinea pig model

Abstract : The pulmonary effects of two environmentally relevant aldehydes were investigated in non-sensitized or ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized guinea pigs (GPs). Four-week-old male Hartley GPs, weighing about 400 g, were intraperitoneally injected with 1 ml of an NaCl solution containing 100 mug OA and 100 mg Al/(OH)(3). They were then exposed to either acetaldehyde (200 ppb) or benzaldehyde (500 ppb) (or 4 wk (6 h/d, 5 d/wk). At the end of exposure, GPs were challenged with an OA aerosol (0.1% in NaCl) and pulmonary functions were measured. The day after, guinea pigs were anesthetized and several endpoints related to inflammatory anti allergic responses were assessed in blood, whole-lung histology, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Sensitized nonexposed GPs showed bronchial hyperresponsiveness to OA and an increased number of eosinophils in blood and BAL, together with a rise in total protein and leukotrienes (LTB4 and LTC4/D-4/E-4) in BAL. In nonsensitized GPs, exposure to acetaldehyde or benzaldehyde did not induce any change in the tested parameters;, with the exception of irritation of the respiratory tract as detected by histology and an increased number of alveolar macrophages in animals exposed to acetaldehyde. In sensitized GPs, exposure to acetaldehyde induced a moderate irritation of the respiratory tract but no change in biological parameters linked to the inflammatory and allergic responses, In contrast, exposure to benzaldehyde induced a decrease both in OA-induced bronchoconstriction and in eosinophil and neutrophil numbers in BAL, an increase in the bronchodilatator mediator prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)) and a decrease in the bronchoconstrictor mediators LTC4/D-4/E-4. Further investigations are needed to determine if the attenuated response observed in sensitized GPs exposed to benzaldehyde is due to an alteration of the mechanism of sensitization or to a more direct effect on various mechanisms of the allergic response.
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Ghislaine Lacroix, Sylvie Tissot, Françoise Rogerieux, Rémy Beaulieu, Line Cornu, et al.. Decrease in ovalbumin-induced pulmonary allergic response by benzaldehyde but not acetaldehyde exposure in a guinea pig model. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues, Taylor & Francis, 2002, 65 (14), pp.995-1012. ⟨10.1080/00984100290071199⟩. ⟨ineris-00961857⟩

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