Allergies respiratoires, pollens et polluants

Abstract : For 30 years, an increased incidence of respiratory allergy and asthma has been observed, particularly in children and young people living in urban areas of developed countries. A genetic origin is unlikely due to the rapidity of this increase and environmental factors (diet, lifestyle, exposure to xenobiotics...) should be involved. Epidemiological studies have shown that atmospheric pollutants may play a role. They could have an effect on the respiratory tract by inducing irritation, inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness or enhancing respiratory allergies (adjuvant effect) or they could have an effect on the aeroallergens, in particular the pollens. Experimental studies have shown that pollen exposure to pollutants induce enhanced deformation or fracture of the external envelope linking to an enhanced liberation of intracytoplasmic allergenic granules and induce also a qualitative and quantitative modification of allergens. However, few experimental studies have shown that pollutant-exposed pollens are more allergenic that "clean" pollens. One important point to consider is the enhanced granule liberation by exposed pollens. Due to the small size of the granules, the allergen bioavailability may increase, leading to higher incidence of respiratory allergies.
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  • INERIS : EN-2006-028

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Ghislaine Lacroix. Allergies respiratoires, pollens et polluants. Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de L'Environnement, Elsevier Masson, 2005, 66, pp.584-591. ⟨ineris-00961897⟩

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