R. Beasley, J. Crane, C. K. Lai, and N. Pearce, Prevalence and etiology of asthma, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol.105, issue.2, pp.466-472, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0091-6749(00)90044-7

J. Duchateau, Allergies et environnement Revue Médicale de Bruxelles, pp.355-357, 1998.

M. Kogevinas, Occupational asthma in Europe and other industrialised areas, Lancet, vol.3544, issue.9173, p.166, 1999.

S. K. Weiland, E. Vonmutius, T. Hirsch, H. Duhme, C. Fritzsch et al., Prevalence of respiratory and atopic disorders among children in the East and West of Germany five years after unification, European Respiratory Journal, vol.14, issue.4, pp.862-870, 1999.
DOI : 10.1034/j.1399-3003.1999.14d23.x

C. Suphioglu, Thunderstorm Asthma Due to Grass Pollen, International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, vol.116, issue.4, pp.253-260, 1998.
DOI : 10.1159/000023953

J. Bousquet, P. Demoly, A. M. Vignola, P. Godard, and F. B. Michel, Comprendre la maladie asthmatique, Méd Sci, vol.15, pp.823-832, 1999.

S. Perdrizet, F. Neukirch, J. Cooreman, and R. Liard, Prevalence of asthma in adolescents in various parts of France and its relationship to respiratory allergic manifestations, Chest, vol.8, issue.6, pp.91-104, 1987.

T. K. Ninan and G. Russell, Respiratory symptoms and atopy in Aberdeen schoolchildren: evidence from two surveys 25 years apart., BMJ, vol.304, issue.6831, pp.304-873, 1992.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.304.6831.873

N. Aberg, Asthma and allergic rhinitis in Swedish conscripts, Clinical <html_ent glyph="@amp;" ascii="&"/> Experimental Allergy, vol.9, issue.1, pp.59-63, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0091-6749(86)90295-2

J. K. Peat, C. M. Salome, and A. J. Woolcock, Factors associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness in Australian adults and children, Eur Respir J, vol.11, issue.58, pp.921-929, 1992.

R. A. Shaw, J. Crane, T. V. O-'donnell, L. E. Porteous, and E. D. Coleman, Increasing asthma prevalence in a rural New Zealand adolescent population: 1975-89., Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol.65, issue.12, pp.65-1319, 1990.
DOI : 10.1136/adc.65.12.1319

T. Haahtela, H. Lindholm, F. Bjorksten, K. Koskenvuo, and L. A. Laitinen, Prevalence of asthma in Finnish young men., BMJ, vol.301, issue.6746, pp.301-266, 1990.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.301.6746.266

J. Latvala, L. Von-hertzen, H. Lindholm, and T. Haahtela, Trends in prevalence of asthma and allergy in Finnish young men: nationwide study, Br Med J, vol.14, issue.7501, pp.1966-2003, 2005.

S. F. Thomsen, C. S. Ulrik, K. Larsen, and V. Backer, Change in prevalence of asthma in Danish children and adolescents Signs of reversing trends in prevalence of asthma, Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol Allergy, vol.921516, issue.53, pp.506-511, 2004.

R. J. Davies, C. Rusznak, and J. L. Devalia, Why is allergy increasing? - environmental factors, Clinical & Experimental Allergy, vol.53, issue.S6, pp.8-14, 1998.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2222.1998.0280s6008.x

G. Pauli, J. C. Bessot, and E. Quoix, [Effect of the environment on the development of respiratory allergies], Rev Pneumol Clin, issue.6, pp.45-231, 1989.

C. Rusznak, J. L. Devalia, and R. J. Davies, The impact of pollution on allergic disease, Allergy, vol.9, issue.5, pp.49-70, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0041-008X(91)90233-5

J. Q. Koenig, Air pollution and asthma [20] vonMutius E.: The environmental predictors of allergic disease, J Allergy Clin Immunol J Allergy Clin Immunol, vol.10421, issue.1051, pp.717-722, 1999.

M. D. Lebowitz, Epidemiological studies of the respiratory effects of air pollution, European Respiratory Journal, vol.9, issue.5, pp.1029-1054, 1996.
DOI : 10.1183/09031936.96.09051029

C. M. Luczynska, L. A. Walker, and P. G. Burney, Skin sensitivity in school children in two different areas of London, Eur Respir J, vol.823, issue.19, p.250, 1995.

T. Ishizaki, K. Koizumi, R. Ikemori, Y. Ishiyama, and E. Kushibiki, Studies of prevalence of Japanese cedar pollinosis among the residents in a densely cultivated area, Ann Allergy, vol.58, issue.4, pp.265-270, 1987.

P. Chitano, J. J. Hosselet, C. E. Mapp, and L. M. Fabbri, Effect of oxidant air pollutants on the respiratory system: insights from experimental animal research, European Respiratory Journal, vol.8, issue.8, pp.1357-1371, 1995.
DOI : 10.1183/09031936.95.08081357

G. Lacroix, S. Tissot, F. Rogerieux, R. Beaulieu, L. Cornu et al., DECREASE IN OVALBUMIN-INDUCED PULMONARY ALLERGIC RESPONSE BY BENZALDEHYDE BUT NOT ACETALDEHYDE EXPOSURE IN A GUINEA PIG MODEL, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, vol.41, issue.14, pp.65-995, 2002.
DOI : 10.1080/009841096160664

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ineris-00961857

T. Sandström, Respiratory effects of air pollutants: experimental studies in humans, Eur Respir J, vol.829, issue.6, pp.976-995, 1995.

R. Helleday, D. Huberman, A. Blomberg, N. Stjernberg, and T. Sandstrom, Nitrogen dioxide exposure impairs the frequency of the mucociliary activity in healthy subjects, European Respiratory Journal, vol.8, issue.10, pp.1664-1668, 1995.
DOI : 10.1183/09031936.95.08101664

G. Lacroix, S. Tissot, F. Rogerieux, F. Robidel, L. Cornu et al., Pulmonary effects of acetaldehyde or benzaldehyde exposure in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea-pigs
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ineris-00969746

A. E. Nel, D. Diaz-sanchez, D. Ng, T. Hiura, and A. Saxon, Enhancement of allergic inflammation by the interaction between diesel exhaust particles and the immune system??????????????????, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol.102, issue.4, pp.539-554, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0091-6749(98)70269-6

F. Riedel, M. Kramer, C. Scheibenbogen, and C. H. Rieger, Effects of SO2 exposure on allergic sensitization in the guinea pig, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol.82, issue.4, pp.527-534, 1988.
DOI : 10.1016/0091-6749(88)90961-X

D. Diaz-sanchez, A. Tsien, A. Casillas, A. R. Dotson, and A. Saxon, Enhanced nasal cytokine production in human beings after in vivo challenge with diesel exhaust particles Diesel exhaust particles induce local IgE production in vivo and alter the pattern of IgE messenger RNA isoforms, J Allergy Clin Immunol J Clin Invest, vol.983435, issue.14, pp.114-123, 1994.

K. Ohta, N. Yamashita, M. Tajima, T. Miyasaka, J. Nakano et al., Diesel exhaust particulate induces airway hyperresponsiveness in a murine model: Essential role of GM-CSF?????????, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol.104, issue.5, pp.1024-1030, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0091-6749(99)70084-9

R. J. Pandya, G. Solomon, A. Kinner, and J. R. Balmes, Diesel Exhaust and Asthma: Hypotheses and Molecular Mechanisms of Action, Environmental Health Perspectives, vol.110, issue.s1, pp.103-112, 2002.
DOI : 10.1289/ehp.02110s1103

D. Diaz-sanchez, A. Tsien, J. Fleming, and A. Saxon, Combined diesel exhaust particulate and ragweed allergen challenge markedly enhances human in vivo nasal ragweed-specific IgE and skews cytokine production to a T helper cell 2-type pattern, J Immunol, vol.38, issue.5, pp.158-2406, 1997.

D. Diaz-sanchez, D. Diaz-sanchez, M. P. Garcia, M. Wang, M. Jyrala et al., The role of diesel exhaust particles and their associated polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the induction of allergic airway disease Nasal challenge with diesel exhaust particles can induce sensitization to a neoallergen in the human mucosa, Allergy J Allergy Clin Immunol, vol.3940, issue.386, pp.52-52, 1997.

J. Pourazar, A. J. Frew, A. Blomberg, R. Helleday, F. J. Kelly et al., Diesel exhaust exposure enhances the expression of IL-13 in the bronchial epithelium of healthy subjects, Respiratory Medicine, vol.98, issue.9, pp.98-821, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rmed.2004.02.025

S. Takafuji, S. Suzuki, K. Koizumi, K. Tadokoro, T. Miyamoto et al., Dieselexhaust particulates inoculated by the intranasal route have an adjuvant activity for IgE production in mice, J Allergy Clin Immunol, vol.7942, issue.4, pp.639-645, 1987.

M. Muranaka, S. Suzuki, K. Koizumi, S. Takafuji, T. Miyamoto et al., Adjuvant activity of diesel-exhaust particulates for the production of IgE antibody in mice, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol.77, issue.4, pp.616-623, 1986.
DOI : 10.1016/0091-6749(86)90355-6

H. Fujimaki, O. Nohara, T. Ichinose, N. Watanabe, and S. Saito, IL-4 production in mediastinal lymph node cells in mice intratracheally instilled with diesel exhaust particulates and antigen, Toxicology, vol.92, issue.1-3, pp.1-3, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0300-483X(94)90182-1

H. Fujimaki, K. Saneyoshi, O. Nohara, F. Shiraishi, and T. Imai, Intranasal Instillation of Diesel Exhaust Particulates and Antigen in Mice Modulated Cytokine Productions in Cervical Lymph Node Cells, International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, vol.108, issue.3, pp.268-273, 1995.
DOI : 10.1159/000237163

T. Kobayashi, Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Aggravates Nasal Allergic Reaction in Guinea Pigs, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol.162, issue.2, pp.352-356, 2000.
DOI : 10.1164/ajrccm.162.2.9809035

P. A. Steerenberg, J. A. Dormans, C. C. Vandoorn, S. Middendorp, J. G. Vos et al., A pollen model in the rat for testing adjuvant activity of air pollution components, Inhal Toxicol, vol.47, issue.12, pp.11-1109, 1999.

M. Riedl and D. Diaz-sanchez, Biology of diesel exhaust effects on respiratory function [48] Obtulowicz K.: Air pollution and pollen allergy, J Allergy Clin Immunol Folia Med Cracov, vol.11549, issue.34, pp.221-2281, 1993.

J. Emberlin, The effects of air pollution on allergenic pollen, Eur Respir Rev, vol.850, issue.53, pp.164-167, 1998.

H. Behrendt and W. M. Beckert, Localization, release and bioavailability of pollen allergens: the influence of environmental factors, Curr Opin Immunol, vol.1351, issue.6, pp.709-715, 2001.

A. Motta, G. Peltre, J. A. Dormans, C. E. Withagen, G. Lacroix et al., Effets de polluants atmosphériques gazeux sur l'allergénicité du pollen de Phleum pratense et sur la réponse allergique respiratoire Phleum pratense pollen starch granules induce humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in a rat model of allergy, Thèse de Doctorat, Paris VII. Denis Diderot, pp.34-310, 2004.

A. C. Motta, J. A. Dormans, G. Peltre, G. Lacroix, F. Y. Bois et al., Intratracheal Instillation of Cytoplasmic Granules from <i>Phleum pratense</i> Pollen Induces IgE- and Cell-Mediated Responses in the Brown Norway Rat, International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, vol.135, issue.1, pp.135-159, 2004.
DOI : 10.1159/000080039

G. B. Marks, J. R. Colquhoun, S. T. Girgis, M. H. Koski, A. B. Treloar et al., Thunderstorm outflows preceding epidemics of asthma during spring and summer, Thorax, vol.56, issue.6, pp.56-468, 2001.
DOI : 10.1136/thorax.56.6.468

J. Ruffin, M. Y. Liu, R. Sessoms, S. Banerjee, and U. C. Banerjee, Effects of certain atmospheric pollutants (SO2, NO2 and CO) on the soluble amino acids, molecular weight and antigenicity of some airborne pollen grains, Cytobios, vol.56, issue.185, pp.46-119, 1986.

G. Peltre, L. Derouet, and M. T. Cerceau-larrival, Model treatments simulating environmental action on allergenic Dactylis glomerata pollen, Grana, pp.3059-61, 1991.

G. Masuch, K. Schoene, J. T. Franz, H. Müsken, and K. C. Bergmann, Histological alterations and increase of group 5 allergen in anthers and pollens of Lolium perenne caused by ozone, Eur Respir J, vol.58, pp.10-246, 1997.

G. Masuch, J. T. Franz, K. Schoene, H. Müsken, and K. C. Bergmann, Ozone increases group 5 allergen content of Lolium perenne, Allergy, vol.5, issue.8, pp.874-875, 1997.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01387183

M. Omura, N. Matsuta, T. Morigutchi, I. Kozaki, and T. Akihama, Variations in the physiological and genetic characteristics and pollen grain number in japanese pear depending on the growing conditions, Bulletin of the Fruit Tree Research Station, vol.1660, pp.11-24, 1989.

A. Hartl, J. Kiesslich, R. Weiss, A. Bernhaupt, S. Mostbock et al., Isoforms of the Major Allergen of Birch Pollen Induce Different Immune Responses after Genetic Immunization, International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, vol.120, issue.1, pp.17-2961, 1999.
DOI : 10.1159/000024216

U. Wiedermann, B. Jahn-schmid, R. Fritsch, L. Bauer, H. Renz et al., Effects of adjuvants on the immune response to allergens in a murine model of allergen inhalation: cholera toxin induces a Th1-like response to Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen, Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol.63, issue.14, pp.111-144, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/0264-410X(90)90053-O

T. Nabe, K. Shimizu, N. Mizutani, Y. Saeki, H. Yamamura et al., A New Model of Experimental Allergic Rhinitis Using Japanese Cedar Pollen in Guinea Pigs., The Japanese Journal of Pharmacology, vol.75, issue.3, pp.75-243, 1997.
DOI : 10.1254/jjp.75.243