Ammonia large scale atmospheric dispersion experiments in industrial configurations

Abstract : A programme of large-scale experiments for atmospheric dispersion was carried out by INERIS over a period extending from December 1996 to April 1997. The objectives of the test campaign were to measure anhydrous ammonia concentrations in a range of few meters to 2 kin from the release, in order to generate data to be used to improve 2-phase discharge and dispersion modelling. The discharges were released from a 6-tonne storage tank of pressurised liquid ammonia and through a discharge device with an outlet diameter of 2 in. Fifteen trials were carried out with various release configurations corresponding to industrial situations (impinging jets on the ground and on a wall at various distances, release through a flange without seal...). The quantity of ammonia discharged from the liquid phase varied according to the tests, from 1.4 to 3.5 tons for durations between 7 and 14 min and, therefore, at flow rates between 2 and 4.5 kg/s. Approximately 200 sensors were settled downwind to measure ammonia concentrations and temperature in the plume. These tests showed that for discharges with identical flow rates the distances corresponding to the same concentration vary a lot according to the configurations. These distances tend to be reduced by the presence of obstacles or retention dikes that collected liquid ammonia. In the paper, the main experimental results are presented. In order to enable the comparisons with numerical predictions, more detailed information are given in [Bouet R. (1999). Ammoniac-Essais de dispersion atmosphérique à grande échelle. INERIS rapport, réf. INERIS-DRA-RBo-1999-20410] (available at http://www.ineris.fr/recherches/recherches.htm).
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Rémy Bouet, Stéphane Duplantier, Olivier Salvi. Ammonia large scale atmospheric dispersion experiments in industrial configurations. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Elsevier, 2005, 18 (4-6), pp.512-519. ⟨10.1016/j.jlp.2005.07.016⟩. ⟨ineris-00962967⟩

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