Environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides : Application to occupationally and non-occupationally exposed adult populations

Abstract : The purpose of the study was to assess non-dietary exposure of workers and the general population in the Paris area to some organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. In total, 21 workers from different occupational places (two greenhouses, three florist shops and three veterinary departments) and 20 subjects assumed to be non-occupationally exposed were recruited. Indoor air, hand wipes, and three first morning urine samples were collected. Seven OPs were measured by GC/ECD and GC/TSD, and six urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites by GC/PFPD. All indoor air samples from the workplaces and only one-third of the samples from the residences contained at least one of the seven OPs. However, almost all participants were dermally exposed to OPs. Total OP indoor air and cutaneous levels were significantly higher for workers than for the general population (air median = 185 pmol/m(3) Versus nondetectable, P< 0.0001; hands median = 1250 pmol/hands versus 475 pmol/hands, P = 0.03). From the air, gardeners and florists were mainly exposed to methyl-OPs and veterinary staff to ethyl-OPs (mainly diazinon). From their hands, all subjects were exposed to methyl-OPs, with gardeners and florists exposed to somewhat but not significantly higher levels. Ethyl-OPs were more found frequently and at higher levels on the hands of veterinary workers. Total OP levels in indoor air and from hand wipes were significantly correlated (Spearman R = 0.34, P = 0.03). DAP detection frequencies and levels were not different between workers and the general population (workers median = 168 nmol/g creat and general population median = 241 nmol/g creat, P=0.31), and did not correlate with air or hand levels. Subjects not occupationally exposed showed significant residential exposure to OPs, more frequently from their hands than from the air. Different occupations were associated with different exposure profiles and levels. The lack of differences in DAP levels between the different groups of exposure suggests that dietary exposure to OP residues and exposure to other OPs are involved.
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Ghislaine Bouvier, Olivier Blanchard, Isabelle Momas, Nathalie Seta. Environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides : Application to occupationally and non-occupationally exposed adult populations. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, Nature Publishing Group, 2006, 16 (5), pp.417-426. ⟨10.1038/sj.jes.7500473⟩. ⟨ineris-00963034⟩

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