Impact de la combustion du bois sur la qualité de l'air ambiant de quatre villes de France : évaluation de l'approche par traceurs organiques

Abstract : Nowadays, promoted as a renewable energy, biomass burning becomes more and more widespread all over the world. In urban and rural areas biomass, mainly wood, is burned for heating, cooking, and waste disposal purposes. This biofuel seems to be an alternative to the rarefaction of the fossil fuel and, moreover it decreases the emission of carbon dioxide causing global warming. However, wood smoke contains various air pollutants such as fine particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, dioxins... and in consequence has an impact on the air quality. In order to estimate the contribution of wood burning on the atmospheric organic aerosol of urban areas, the French ministry of environment (MEEDDAT), called upon this study during the winter 2006/2007, in the French cities of Grenoble, Lille, Strasbourg and Gennevilliers. For this work, different species have been looked after. The global characterization of the atmospheric aerosols has been made taking in account the PM10, the organic carbon (OC), and the elementary carbon (EC). Measurement of biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan) has been undertaken, as well as methoxyphenols, which are more specific wood smoke tracers. The analyses of organic tracers by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer detector (GC/MS) show average concentrations of levoglucosan in the range of 272 ng.m-3 for Gennevilliers to 1 148 ng.m-3 for Grenoble. Mannosan and galactosan have also been measured in all cities but in lower quantities. The methoxyphenols have been detected only in rare occasions and at the limit of detection of the analytical method. PM10 measurements range from 20.6 micro g.m-3 for Gennevilliers to 35.8 micro g.m-3 for Grenoble. At the same time, OC values range from 3.61 micro g.m-3 to 11.15 micro g.m-3. Moreover high correlations have been observed between levoglucosan and OC, respectively 0.80 and 0.86 for Grenoble and Strasbourg. In addition, with respectively 10.98 ng.m-3 and 8.20 ng.m-3, Grenoble and Strasbourg present the highest particulate PAHs average concentrations of the four cities. All these results seem to indicate that Grenoble and Strasbourg are more impacted by the biomass burning than the two other cities. And more particularly in Grenoble where the organic aerosol fraction is very huge, this last phenomenon is typically characteristic of the biomass burning. To conclude, this study shows and confirms the usefulness of levoglucosan as biomass burning tracer and the difficulty to use methoxyphenols as woodsmoke tracers in ambient areas.
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  • HAL Id : ineris-00963208, version 1
  • INERIS : EN-2009-244

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Nicolas Pissot, Jean-Luc Besombes, Eva Leoz-Garziandia, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo. Impact de la combustion du bois sur la qualité de l'air ambiant de quatre villes de France : évaluation de l'approche par traceurs organiques. Pollution Atmosphérique : climat, santé, société, Le Kremlin Bicêtre : Revue Pollution atmosphérique, 2009, pp.325-333. ⟨ineris-00963208⟩

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