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L'exposition humaine au bisphénol A : un facteur de risque environnemental des maladies métaboliques et cardiovasculaires

Abstract : The role of environmental factors in the dramatic progression of metabolic diseases (obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome) is indisputable. Besides the well-known identified factors (dietary energetic imbalance, physical inactivity, psychosocial conditions), it is now recognized that pollutants found in food belonging to the class of endocrine disruptors (bisphenol A, pesticides, PCB, phthalates...) contribute to the development of metabolic diseases. In this review, we shall present how bisphenol A, one of the most widespread pollutants present in our food and found in at least 95% of the population, affects the endocrine system responsible for regulating metabolic processes. We shall show that bisphenol A does not follow the conventional standards of cytotoxicity thanks to the back-up of epidemiological and experimental studies. Indeed, BPA acts at very low doses, well below the current acceptable daily intake (50 micro g/kg body mass/day), and does not follow the traditional dose-response dynamic of classic toxic molecules. Its ability to act during the gestational period may induce the development of metabolic disturbances in offspring that will appear later in life, predisposing to obesity and diabetes. Recent data obtained on the role of bisphenol A on the activation of various receptors independent of the oestrogen receptor and on epigenetic alterations transmitted to the subsequent generations may account for the alteration of the endocrine/hormonal system regulating glucose homeostasis and thus lead to metabolic disorders during adolescence or adulthood. On the grounds of the precautionary principle, the recent knowledge on the toxicity of bisphenol A should be taken into consideration by the institutional health agencies to revise the current daily exposure dose in order to drastically reduce human exposure, especially in pregnant women, newborns and young children.
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G. Nalbone, André Cicolella, S. Laot-Cabon. L'exposition humaine au bisphénol A : un facteur de risque environnemental des maladies métaboliques et cardiovasculaires. Médecine & Longévité, 2011, 3 (1), pp.42-51. ⟨10.1016/j.mlong.2011.01.002⟩. ⟨ineris-00963294⟩



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