Effects of depleted uranium on immune parameters of zebrafish, Danio rerio, measured by flow cytometry

Abstract : Uranium is ubiquitous in natural waters at concentrations ranging from a few ng/L to low micro g/L depending on the composition of surrounding rocks and up to 1 mg/L at the vicinity of uraniferous sites.1 Depleted uranium (DU) is a byproduct of enriched uranium and is used in military, aviation, medical and research applications. Freshwater ecosystems may constitute the final receptor areas of DU to which they may be chronically exposed both to its chemical toxicity.2 Among all physiological processes possibly disturbed by pollutants, the immune system is likely to be one of the more sensitive physiological systems.3 Fish innate immune responses, which are the first line of immune system defence of these organisms may be suppressed by xenobiotics and seem to represent relevant immunotoxic endpoints.4 Keller et al.5 reported effects of cadmium, copper and zinc on immune parameters including total white blood cells, macrophage activity, and oxidative burst in several fish species. Mercury and selenite were also proved to be toxic to lysozyme activity and lymphocyte proliferation in blue gourami.6 Phagocytosis and oxidative burst were also reduced in the presence of cadmium or mercury in rainbow trout.7 However, data on effects of DU on fish immune system are scarce. The objective of this work was to test the potential impacts of DU on zebrafish immune system using several endpoints measured by flow cytometry: cell population, cell mortality, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lysosome integrity and phagocytosis activity. Two separate experiments were conducted on zebrafish in order to assess DU effects in vivo on adults and ex vivo on leucocytes.
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Béatrice Gagnaire, Anne Bado-Nilles, Stéphane Betoulle, Wilfried Sanchez. Effects of depleted uranium on immune parameters of zebrafish, Danio rerio, measured by flow cytometry. Journal of Xenobiotics, Page Press publications, 2013, 3 (1S special issue), pp.NC. ⟨10.4081/xeno.2013.s1.e3⟩. ⟨ineris-00963489⟩

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