Numerical analysis of smoke layer stability

Abstract : The EGSISTES project is a global reflection about risk and dangerous phenomena relative to underground infrastructures. One category of risk identified for such an infrastructure is the fire and its consequences in terms of temperature and smoke propagation. In some situations, smoke stratification is used to ensure safety of people located inside the tunnel. In such a case, it must be ensure that smoke stay stratified even in the case of an aerodynamic perturbation such as a jet fan or vehicles presence. Two ways enable the improvement of the understanding of smoke behaviour in underground infrastructure: experiments and numerical approach. Both strategies are used complementary during the project. Experiments are achieved in the INERIS fire gallery while two CFD codes, FDS and Phoenics, based on two different approaches for turbulence modelling, are used. The first step consists in a comparison between experimental and numerical results on a configuration given as a reference. This reference case was chosen as the backlayering smoke layer establishment and stability. The numerical objective was to reproduce the length and thickness of this layer. After having shown that both codes should predict with a quite good accuracy the backlayering length, those two codes are used to study the influence of perturbation on the stratification stability. This study shows firstly that a jet located upstream the backlayering smoke layer tends to modify the smoke layer front but influences slightly the smoke layer near the fire. Secondly, in case of the presence of vehicles downstream the fire in a congested tunnel, the stratification is not altered just above vehicles but can be altered downstream these obstacles.
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Benjamin Truchot, Mélanie Boehm, Frédéric Waymel. Numerical analysis of smoke layer stability. 13. International Symposium on aerodynamics and ventilation of vehicle tunnels, May 2009, New Brunswick, United States. pp.281-295. ⟨ineris-00976214⟩

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