Eco-SUN for Eco-design of sunscreen using titanium dioxide nanoparticles

Abstract : Among cosmetics and personal care products, sunscreen products are of emerging concern regarding both human and environmental health. The fate and impact of mineral nanoparticulate UV-blockers, such as TiO2 nanomaterials, is under consideration from a regulatory perspective due to their potential impact. Once leaving the skin either through bathing or everyday usage and cleaning, the nanomaterials contained in the sunscreen can be released into rivers, lakes, sea shores, and/or sewage treatment plants. The nanomaterial behaviour, fate and impact in these different systems is largely determined by its surface properties, (e.g. the nanomaterial coating type) and lifetime. Here we present the first result of the Eco-SUN research program aimed at developing the eco-design of sunscreens through the minimization of risks associated with nanomaterials incorporated into the formulation. Different stages of the cream lifecycle are considered from its manufacture to its end of life, through its use by the consumer and its impact on the exposed environments. Reducing the potential release and / or toxicity of the nanomaterial from the cream is a decisive criterion for its eco-design. Different relevant TiO2 UV-blockers have been selected to integrate a typical o/w formulation as case studies. The resulting sunscreen were characterised in terms of nanomaterial localisation, sun protection factor and photo-passivation. The risk for the consumer by dermal exposure was assessed using skin biopsies. Inflammation and skin penetration were evaluated. The risk for the aquatic environment directly expose was assessed both in terms of exposure and hazard. The release of nanomaterials from the sunscreen upon normal usage was studied in laboratory through simulated aging procedure. Two biological models, sea urchin and coral colonies, were selected as relevant endpoints to assess the marine ecotoxicity of the byproducts formed. Finally, the risk related to the end of life of the sunscreen through the removal with cleaning water followed by drainage to sewage treatment plants was evaluated by considering two opposite fate scenarios: (i) nanomaterial concentration in sewadge sludge later spread as fertilizer in agriculture, and (ii) nanomaterial suspension maintained in the treated water and released in river water. Thus, fate and impact in soil and river ecosystems were also studied.
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Conference papers
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  • HAL Id : ineris-01854203, version 1

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Jérôme Labille, D. Slomberg, D. Guerin, J. Hubaud, S. Lehmann, et al.. Eco-SUN for Eco-design of sunscreen using titanium dioxide nanoparticles. 26. SETAC Europe annual meeting, May 2016, Nantes, France. ⟨ineris-01854203⟩

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