Synergies and divergence between LCA human toxicity assessment and Risk Assessment approaches

Abstract : 1. Introduction Beyond the assessment of toxic effects and risks within the framework of European regulations, such as REACh and CLP, other assessment methods for sanitary risks exist but differ from one country to another. Methodologies are different but always based on the founding principles of dose-response relationships and exposure scenarios describing the source-to-target vector. The complementarity of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Chemical Risk Assessment (RA) may yield a more accurate and exhaustive approach to assess human toxicity. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Panorama of methods assessing human toxicity Various approaches to assess human toxicity risks exist and allow to supply toxicity data. The classifications, such as those established by the European Union, allow to identify hazards of substances. Risk and hazard based approaches typically apply (reasonable) worst-case assumptions for modelling and data selection. In contrast, LCA toxicity assessment methods apply the concept of best-estimates. Another important difference is that RA is site-specific whereas LCA is site-generic. A number of relevant methods for human toxicity assessment within the LCA and RA frameworks have been analysed in order to allow for a mapping of the methods. The results and the divergences identified between the methods are presented in a condensed way. 2.2. Complementarities The methods have been analysed according to many criteria. This talk will underline the similarities and differences as well as the advantages and the associated drawbacks linked to each method. To support this analysis, a comparison based on a case study applying both LCA and RA methods was performed for the human toxicity assessment of a paraben-free cosmetic formula. A detergent was also analysed with different methods. Throughout the study, independent scientific experts have been associated to assure a peer-review of this study. 3. Results and discussion Propositions for the correct interpretation of results as well as their limitations and research needs were identified. Methodological issues will be discussed. Moreover, guidelines and recommendations for human toxicity assessment will be proposed, detailing which method serves which purpose, where they overlap and where they complement one another. This study invites experts to work together to find solutions to the current issues in human toxicity assessment.
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M. Cornelus, R.K. Rosenbaum, S. Causse, Vincent Grammont, Adrien Troise, et al.. Synergies and divergence between LCA human toxicity assessment and Risk Assessment approaches. 26. SETAC Europe annual meeting, May 2016, Nantes, France. ⟨ineris-01854204⟩

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