Effect of an herbicide, ethofumesate, on aerobic metabolism in roach (Rutilus rutilus) at two temperatures

Abstract : Ethofumesate is a benzofuran herbicide commonly used to control weeds of sugar beet. Its mechanism of action in plants is to inhibit the synthesis of very long chain fatty acids. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ethofumesate on aerobic metabolism in juvenile roach at different (biochemical, molecular and cellular) regulation levels. Studying the energy metabolism constitutes an appropriate approach to detect physiological disturbances of organisms linked to their exposure to pollutants. Indeed animal survival depends on the availability of energy necessary to ensure physiological functions as maintenance, growth and reproduction. Among biological processes involved in cellular energy synthesis, we focused on glycolysis and respiratory chain pathways. Two temperatures were tested to assess potential effects of this parameter on energy metabolism responses to chemicals. During exposure, fish were exposed to 0.5; 5 or 50 µg.L-1 of ethofumesate during seven days, at 10°C for the first experiments and at 17°C for the second. For each experiments, fish were sacrified and white muscle sampled at 0,1 and 7 days. Glycolysis fluxes, gene expression, electron transport system, anti-oxydant responses and mitochondria ultrastructure were analyzed. Concerning glycolysis pathway, aerobic flux seemed to be affected at T1 when individuals exposed to ethofumesate at 10°C presented a lower aerobic flux than control. Expression of HK gene decreased significantly at T1 in fish exposed to ethofumesate at 10°C. As HK is the only aerobic enzyme of the glycolysis pathway, we can hypothesize that such an under-expression of this gene could be related to an effect on aerobic flux. Focusing on respiratory chain, this pathway was differently affected depending on temperature. Ethofumesate seems to have more effects at 17 than 10°C, what seems consistent, as energy metabolism is known to be more active with increasing temperature. This temperature effect was observable in electron transport system and antioxidant activity essentially. Indeed, ETS decreased in muscle of contaminated fish at 17°C only. In conclusion, this study revealed a disturbance on aerobic metabolism due to ethofumesate exposure on juvenile roaches, especially in glycolysis pathway with an effect of exposure temperature. This study provides potential new biomarkers related to the energy metabolism, but further analyses are required to understand the action mechanisms.
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V. Maes, A. Vettier, O. Dedourge-Geffard, Alain Geffard, Olivier Palluel, et al.. Effect of an herbicide, ethofumesate, on aerobic metabolism in roach (Rutilus rutilus) at two temperatures. 24. SETAC Europe annual meeting "Science across bridges, borders and boundaries", May 2014, Bâle, Switzerland. pp.47. ⟨ineris-01862418⟩

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