Approche multi-biomarqueurs pour la surveillance des écosystèmes aquatiques

Abstract : To assess the effects of contamination at low organisation levels, several studies have focused on biomarker utilization as indicators of chemical exposure and early responses of aquatic organisms. However, to evaluate the various responses to pollutant mixtures in organisms, the usefulness of a set of complementary biomarkers has been demonstrated and is now applied in environmental biomonitoring programs. In this context, the selected sentinel species appears as a critical factor for an accurate description of pollution effects in organisms. The stickleback is a pollution-tolerant fish which inhabit most aquatic ecosystems in the northern hemisphere. It has been proposed as a suitable fish species for detecting endocrine disruption induced by environmental pollutants and appears as an interesting model fish species for environmental biomonitoring. However, few data describe biomarker responses in wild stickleback populations. In the present work, a set of biomarkers including biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress parameters, neurotoxicity marker but also estrogenic and androgenic end-points was developed and validated. Firstly, biomarker assays were set up in the stickleback. Indeed, several biomarkers such as EROD and acetylcholinesterase activities are classically employed in various fish species but methodological adaptation is required. Moreover, specific immuno-enzymatic assays were developed to quantify endocrine disruption biomarkers such as vitellogenin and spiggin. Secondly, this set of biochemical biomarkers was validated in situ. Sticklebacks collected monthly in a reference was used to determine basal level of investigated parameters but also to characterise the effects of gender and sampling season on biomarker responses. According to the results of this experiment, male and female fish from sites sampled in Autumn and characterised by various contamination levels were analysed. This study showed that biomarker responses in stickleback are valuable parameters to describe the effects of contamination in aquatic organisms. Moreover, biomarkers appear as complementary tools with other environmental parameters including chemical analysis in water and sediment but also population disturbances. In the last step, an ecotoxicological indicator was set-up to summarize biomarker responses recorded in investigated sites. This indicator allows site ranking based on biomarker measurement and provides a complementary data to other environmental indicators.
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Wilfried Sanchez, Jean-Marc Porcher. Approche multi-biomarqueurs pour la surveillance des écosystèmes aquatiques. Rapport Scientifique INERIS, 2008, 2007-2008, pp.46-49. ⟨ineris-01869196⟩

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