Épisodes de pollution particulaire en Europe au printemps 2007

Abstract : A dust event was observed in Europe on March 23-25, 2007. Surface observations in Central Europe showed huge concentrations values of particulate matter. Lidar measurements and surface stations in Eastern Europe diagnosed a dust event originating from Ukraine related to chernozemic erodible lands. Using new surface and satellite measurements with modeling results, it is demonstrated that the finally huge surface concentrations recorded in the Netherlands, Belgium and the North of France were mostly due to the extremely rare Ukraine dust event whereas Saharan dust events usually produce only mid-troposphere plumes. Over Western Europe the model reproduces the observed PM concentration peaks up to 200 μg.m−3 with a large contribution of Ukraine dust, up to 170 μg.m−3. Most generally, in Spring 2007, several particulate matter episodes occurred over the Western part of Europe as shown by ground base and satellite measurements. In March and April, 2007, daily PM10 concentrations often exceeded the regulatory public information threshold (50 μg.m−3). These events were largely due to high amonium nitrate contents in particles, concomintant to high air temperatures favoring ammonia volatilization from soil. From January 1st, 2007, France has set up a method to correct PM observations issued from automated devices (TEOM). Such devices evaporate the volatile fraction of particles and a correction factor is usually applied in Europe, but this method fails to capture some of the highest PM concentrations. The chemistry transport model CHIMERE fairly reproduces the temporal evolution of amonium nitrate concentrations.
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Bertrand Bessagnet. Épisodes de pollution particulaire en Europe au printemps 2007. Rapport Scientifique INERIS, 2008, 2007-2008, pp.65-66. ⟨ineris-01869200⟩

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