Effet des faibles doses : preuves et inférences

Abstract : Discussing how plausible are the “low dose” effects related to environmental issues is a necessity. However, it is not a “low dose” but rather a “low effect”. To be more accurate, because “low effects” on large populations are not that small, it should be better to say “doses with undetectable effects”. Hereafter, this “poorly detectable effect” concept is described from a toxicology and epidemiology view point. We also discuss how to set up a boundary for the low effect region. Once it is done, the different types of inference from observed situations (i.e. high effects) to situations of relevance for public health are reviewed, with a view to characterize their level of confidence. The first type is extrapolation from higher to lower doses, or higher dose rates to lower dose rates. The second type is transposition from human to human or from animal to human. The third type can be called “analogy” as is done in the “read across” approaches, where QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) methodology can be used. Those three types of inferences can be associated with an estimate of the “distance” between observed and predicted areas, but also they can be backed by mechanistic theories. The new tools of predictive toxicology are helpful both in deriving quantitative estimates and grounding inferences on sound bases.
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Philippe Hubert. Effet des faibles doses : preuves et inférences. Rapport Scientifique INERIS, 2011, 2010-2011, pp.4-7. ⟨ineris-01869378⟩

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