Bioaccessibilité orale des éléments traces métalliques dans les sols pollués

Abstract : Industrial activities lead to contaminate environmental media such as soils. These later accumulate the pollutants such as heavy metal. Management of contaminated sites is based on the estimation of the Human exposure to these elements through either direct or indirect routes. In this context, soil ingestion is often considered, at least in residential areas, as a major exposure route driving the rehabilitation process. For this route, the exposure concentration is based on the total soil concentration of the elements whereas only a fraction of this concentration (the bioavailable fraction) is absorbed by the organism and is likely to exert a toxic effect. Thus estimation of the exposure from the total soil concentration is a conservative approach. These last years, numerous in vitro tests were developed to evaluate the bioavailability through the bioaccessibility, the fraction of the soil contaminant digested in the gastro-intestinal tract. The bioaccessibility research group of Europe (Barge) developed a unified protocol (UBM). INERIS conducted studies to assess the accuracy of this test regarding the physiological phenomenon. To achieve this goal, bioavailability of lead, cadmium, arsenic and antimony in different contaminated soils were measured in piglets used as surrogates of humans. Values were correlated to the in vitro bioaccessibility values measured by the UBM. Results showed that the bioavailability of antimony was very low and that no significant correlation was obtained for this element. Concerning the 3 other elements, bioavailability and bioaccessibility were highly correlated. These results demonstrate the accuracy of the UBM to improve the exposure assessment of humans to contaminated soils through the ingestion route. It allows the proposal of a new characterization of the human exposure to environmental contaminants. With respect to this validation, the bioaccessibility concept can be integrated to different research project concerning the human exposure to flame retardants or pesticides and the spatialized multimedia human exposure to soil contaminants. In the near future, some works will have to be likely developed to develop the bioaccessibility measurement for organics and for others exposure routes such as inhalation or vegetables consumption.
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Julien Caboche, Sébastien Denys, Karine Tack. Bioaccessibilité orale des éléments traces métalliques dans les sols pollués. Rapport Scientifique INERIS, 2011, 2010-2011, pp.69-71. ⟨ineris-01869394⟩

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