Genèse, pratique et mutation des analyses de risques, l’éclairage des SHS

Abstract : Risk analysis based on method such as Hazop (hazard operability study) or Fmea (failure mode of analysis) can be analysed as a historical, cognitive, material, organizational and social practice. First, risk analysis methods are historical because they were developed to tackle specific problems such as chemical processes or planes. Their principles translate the technological developments that engineers faced when anticipating unwanted behaviors of engineered systems. These principles provide the disciplined framework for what we call “structured imagination”. Second, the practice of risk analysis is cognitive, relying on a complex mix of deductive, inductive and abductive knowledge for which experience, analogies and stories play a central role. Third, there is a strong material aspect to this practice with diagrams, scale models or simulations to coordinate experts shared understanding of the systems. Finally, organizational dispositions and social context must be favorable to experts’ interactions in order to imagine a wide range of scenarios. New threats and technologies (e.g. terrorism, natural events, digitalization) challenge the practice of risk analysis and require adaptations.
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Jean-Christophe Le Coze, Jean Escande, Christophe Proust. Genèse, pratique et mutation des analyses de risques, l’éclairage des SHS. Rapport Scientifique INERIS, 2017, 2016-2017, pp.44-45. ⟨ineris-01869665⟩

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