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Multistate models of developmental toxicity: Application to valproic acid-induced malformations in the zebrafish embryo

Abstract : For the determination of acute toxicity of chemicals in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, the OECD test guideline 236, relative to the Fish Embryo Toxicity Test (FET), stipulates a dose-response analysis of four lethal core endpoints and a quantitative characterization of abnormalities including their time-dependency. Routinely, the data are analyzed at the different observation times separately. However, observations at a given time strongly depend on the previous effects and should be analyzed jointly with them. To solve this problem, we developed multistate models for occurrence of developmental malformations and live events in zebrafish embryos exposed to eight concentrations of valproic acid (VPA) the first five days of life. Observations were recorded daily per embryo. We statistically infer on model structure and parameters using a numerical Bayesian framework. Hatching probability rate changed with time and we compared five forms of its time-dependence; a constant rate, a piecewise constant rate with a fixed hatching time at 48 h post fertilization, a piecewise constant rate with a variable hatching time, as well as a Hill and Gaussian form. A piecewise constant function of time adequately described the hatching data. The other transition rates were conditioned on the embryo body concentration of VPA, obtained using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model. VPA impacted mostly the malformation probability rate in hatched and non-hatched embryos. Malformation reversion probability rates were lowered by VPA. Direct mortality was low at the concentrations tested, but increased linearly with internal concentration. The model makes full use of data and gives a finer grain analysis of the teratogenic effects of VPA in zebrafish than the OECD-prescribed approach. We discuss the use of the model for obtaining toxicological reference values suitable for inter-species extrapolation. A general result is that complex multistate models can be efficiently evaluated numerically.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, June 30, 2021 - 12:46:08 PM
Last modification on : Friday, August 5, 2022 - 11:24:08 AM
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Ségolène Siméon, Rémy Beaudouin, Katharina Brotzmann, Thomas Braunbeck, Frédéric Bois. Multistate models of developmental toxicity: Application to valproic acid-induced malformations in the zebrafish embryo. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Elsevier, 2021, 414, pp.115424. ⟨10.1016/j.taap.2021.115424⟩. ⟨ineris-03217904⟩



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