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Journal Articles Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety Year : 2021

Toxic effects of a mixture of five pharmaceutical drugs assessed using Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw.

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Abstract

The potential health risks associated with the pharmaceuticals released into the environment through effluents from sewage treatment plants have become a major cause for concern. Owing to the lack of effective indicators, monitoring the concentration of these pollutants in the aquatic environment is challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of a mixture of five pharmaceutical drugs (paracetamol, carbamazepine, diclofenac, irbesartan, and naproxen) using the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica as a bioindicator and bioaccumulator. We examined the effects of the drug mixture on the cellular antioxidant system, chlorophyll content, and morphological traits of F. antipyretica. The plant was exposed for 5 months to three concentrations of the mixture, including the environmental concentration (MX1), and 10-(MX10) and 100-times (MX100) the environmental concentration. The results showed that only carbamazepine and irbesartan were accumulated by the species. The bioconcentration level increased with exposure time, with the maximum uptake at the 4th month of exposure. The increase in bioaccumulation with exposure time was more evident in plants exposed to MX100. Analysis of the activity of antioxidant enzymes showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1.) and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6.) were highly sensitive to the drug mixture. The activity of the enzymes was significantly higher in plants exposed to MX100; however, the activity of guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7.) was not significantly affected. Plants exposed to MX10 and MX100 had significantly lower total chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/b ratio compared with those of plants in the control group; however, photosynthetic activity was restored after 5 months of exposure. The morphological characteristics of F. antipyretica were less sensitive to the treatment conditions.
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Dates and versions

ineris-03361829 , version 1 (01-10-2021)

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Khadija Sossey Alaoui, Bernard Tychon, Sandrine Joachim, Alain Geffard, Katherine Nott, et al.. Toxic effects of a mixture of five pharmaceutical drugs assessed using Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw.. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2021, 225, pp.112727. ⟨10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112727⟩. ⟨ineris-03361829⟩
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